Rothman-Simeone The Spine, 5th Edition
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Throughout much of the late twentieth century numerous surgical specialists have pursued less invasive techniques for the treatment of surgical problems. The specialties of interventional radiology, laproscopic general surgery, arthroscopic orthopaedic surgery and minimally invasive vascular surgery have seen such rapid growth that there are now fellowships in each field. The patient benefits from these less invasive techniques have been well documented throughout the literature and the gold standard for numerous procedures has changed significantly within the last twenty years.