A retrospective analysis of 41 patients operated for excision of soft lumbar extraforaminal disc herniation (EFDH) by percutaneous endoscopic extraforaminal approach under local anesthesia by a new technique.
To describe a new and safer percutaneous endoscopic technique for the removal of soft EFDH and report the results on the basis of a new objective criterion modified from Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).
Summary of Background Data
EFDHs usually occur in older patients and present with atypical symptoms. Their diagnosis and treatment are still controversial, with various authors describing open midline or paraspinal approaches using the microscope with varying amounts of success. Percutaneous endoscopic techniques have traditionally been considered unsuitable for these herniations.